Video Game Addiction

Video game addiction is not yet recognized by the American Medical Association as a diagnosable disorder. However, recent studies show that close to 15 percent of all gamers exhibit addictive symptoms, such as video game withdrawal. Moreover, nearly one in 10 youth and teenage gamers (ages 8 to 18) can be classified as addicted to gaming.


Trichotillomania is a hair-pulling disorder that typically begins between the ages of 9 and 13, and peaks between 12 and 13. Some 2 percent of adolescents, more often females, suffer from trichotillomania and the accompanying hair-pulling anxiety.


Trauma can arise from a wide variety of frightening or difficult events. These can range from common circumstances, such as divorce or death, to extreme occurrences, such as natural disasters, accidents, a school shooting, or war. People who have experienced a traumatic event often suffer from psychological and physical symptoms.

Thought Disorder

Thought disorder reflects a pattern of disorganized thoughts, often indicated by a flight of ideas or so-called “word salad.” In teenagers, thought disorders can lead directly to a break with reality, including the hearing of imagined voices and delusional thinking. Moreover, thought disorders often are accompanied by executive function problems and general disorganization.

Teenage Anxiety

Teen anxiety affects most adolescents at one time or another. Being anxious before a big test or nervous on a first date is a normal part of growing up. However, there is a significant difference between a temporary phase of teenage stress and anxiety and a teenage anxiety disorder. About 25 percent of American teens between the ages of 13 and 18 are diagnosed with an anxiety disorder at some point.

Teen Yoga

Teen yoga has been shown to improve both physical and mental health in adolescents. Like yoga for adults, yoga for teens can be an effective practice for reducing stress and increasing feelings of overall well-being. Furthermore, teen yoga encourages self-reflection while promoting an optimistic outlook on life.

Teen Intervention

Parents may desperately want to help teens who are struggling with substance abuse or mental health challenges, but they may be unsure how to do so. An intervention can help move the family closer to an answer. An intervention is a way for the parents and the teen to begin a conversation about mental health and/or addiction.

Suicide Attempts

Teen suicide attempts demand a proactive response to safeguard lives. Failed suicide attempts leave behind emotional trauma that requires professional support.

Suicidal Thoughts

Suicidal thoughts are much more common than most people would imagine. Thoughts of ending one’s life, or of killing oneself, are also known as suicidal ideation. Teen suicidal thought is often passive suicidal ideation. In other words, teens may think about suicide, but their suicidal thoughts do not progress to suicide plans or suicide attempts. Still, treatment for suicidal thoughts helps to lower the progressive risk.

Stimulant Abuse

Stimulants are a category of substances that includes both illicit and prescription drugs. For teens, stimulants can be attractive because they typically increase energy, enhance feelings of confidence and sociability, and heighten the senses. Teens may also believe that stimulant substances help them study better because they feel more alert and better able to pay attention. However, studies have found that stimulants do not increase learning or thinking ability when taken by people who have not been diagnosed with a medical condition like attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Furthermore, stimulants have dangerous physical and psychological effects.

Steroid Use

Medical professionals agree that any form of performance-enhancing steroid use should be categorized as steroid abuse. The National Institute on Drug Abuse estimates that more than half a million high school students use anabolic steroids, causing damage to their developing bodies.

Spice Abuse

Spice is a chemically produced drug made to look like marijuana. Synthetic cannabinoids are sprayed on plant material to mimic marijuana. However, spice drugs actually have a different chemical makeup that acts differently in the brain. Specifically, they activate the CB1 receptor in the brain to a greater degree than does the THC in marijuana. Therefore, they have mind-altering effects that are typically much stronger than those produced by marijuana. Thus, spice abuse can have intense and dangerous symptoms.

Somatic Therapy

Somatic Therapy, also referred to as ‘somatic counseling’ is a type of therapy that focuses on the connection of the body and the mind. This type of therapy includes Somatic Experiencing and Hakomi Therapy, and it helps people suffering from psychological trauma to recover and live a trauma-free life. Derived from the Greek word “soma,” meaning “living body,” somatic therapy focuses on the mind-body connection to recover from stress, anxiety, grief and even addiction.

Social Media Addiction

Being addicted to social media is a real threat in today’s modern world. Social media sites are virtual communities where users can create public profiles and interact with other people. Such communities create the illusion of real-life intimacy. Thus, this illusion is a contributing factor in teens’ social media addictions.

Being addicted to social media takes different forms and addresses different desires. For example, Instagram addiction provides visual stimulation, while Facebook addiction is more about experiential interactions. Nevertheless, like any form of addiction, becoming addicted to social media is a real danger for young people.

Social Anxiety

Often referred to as social phobia, social anxiety disorder is when a person is overcome with fear and worry in social settings. Negatively inhibiting everyday routines, social anxiety affects about 15 million Americans, with the typical age of onset being 13 years old.

Sex Addiction

Sex addiction, also known as hypersexuality, is not an official clinical diagnosis. Experts consider sex addiction to be a sub-disorder grouped under the umbrella category of hypersexual disorders. The first major study of sex addiction and hypersexuality was published in 1991.


The urge to self-harm is not uncommon, especially in adolescents and teenagers. Once self-injury, including cutting and self-mutilation, begins, intervention is needed to prevent a pattern of ongoing self-harm behaviors from becoming normalized. Although self-injury is more common in women, self-harm scars can be seen on men as well.

Seasonal Affective Disorder

Season Affective Disorder (SAD) is a type of seasonal depression brought on by cold weather. Therefore, Seasonal Affective Disorder is more frequently experienced in people who live far north or south of the equator. Moreover, women are diagnosed with SAD four times more often than men.

Schizoaffective Disorder

Schizoaffective disorder is diagnosed in about .3 percent of the population. Teen schizoaffective disorder is very hard to accurately diagnose, as it is difficult to distinguish from schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and other mood disorders. Many teens with schizoaffective disorder are often initially misdiagnosed with bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, or schizophreniform disorder (a type of schizophrenia that lasts for less than six months).

Ritalin Abuse

Teen Ritalin use suppresses appetite, increases wakefulness, and enhances focus and attention. Therefore, it is abused by teens seeking to lose weight or improve their academic or sports performance. However, according to the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), research has shown that students who abuse prescription stimulants actually have lower GPAs in high school and college than those who don’t.

Residential Treatment

Residential treatment services can be traced back to the work of Anna Freud, the daughter of Sigmund Freud, and her peers at the Vienna Psychoanalytic Society in the early 1900s. Wanting to take better care of children in crisis, they created the first residential treatment centers for adolescents and teens with emotional and behavioral disorders.

Relationship Addiction

Relationship addiction, or love addiction, is also known as codependency. In 1988, psychiatrist Timmen Cermak suggested that codependency be classified as a mental illness, requiring psychotherapy and treatment interventions.


Relapse is a common occurrence among those in recovery from alcohol or drug abuse. According to drug relapse statistics from the National Institute on Drug Abuse, 40 to 60 percent of people experience a recurrence of symptoms at least once after treatment for drug addiction. This drug relapse rate is similar to the relapse rates for other chronic diseases, such as diabetes, hypertension, and asthma. Furthermore, for those in recovery from alcoholism, the relapse rate may be as high as 90 percent.


Psychosis is more common than many people might think. According to the National Alliance on Mental Illness, approximately 100,000 young people in America experience psychosis each year. As many as three in 100 people will have a psychotic episode at some point in their lives. Teenagers and young adults have a higher risk of experiencing psychosis due to changes in the brain during puberty


Psychoeducation rose to prominence in the mid-1980s in Germany, where the psychoeducational model evolved into a program of communication for people with mental health conditions. By focusing on skillful sharing of information with patients and their families, psychoeducation leads to a significant reduction in relapse rates, according to recent studies. Moreover, psychoeducational groups have been shown to reduce the time patients spend in a hospital or residential setting by nearly 50 percent.

Prochaska DiClemente Stages

The Prochaska DiClemente Stages are named after the founders of the stages of change model. Specifically, this model outlines the five stages of change that people experience upon making a conscious decision to change. In substance use disorder treatment, the Prochaska DiClemente Stages have become central to relapse prevention.

Prescription Drug Abuse

Prescription drug abuse includes many types of drug misuse, from taking another person’s ADHD medication to snorting or injecting ground-up painkiller tablets to get high. Teens tend to obtain medications for prescription drug abuse from family and friends. Many teenagers believe that since a medication is prescribed, it’s not dangerous.

Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder

Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder, a severe form of premenstrual syndrome, affects about 5 percent of women of childbearing age, including adolescent girls. Teen Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder can occur in tandem with mental health conditions, such as depression, anxiety, or other mood disorders. Therefore, proper assessment is necessary to accurately diagnose Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder in teenagers.

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) affects 7.7 million American adults each year. PTSD is most commonly associated with military veterans who have been exposed to combat. However, there are various types of traumatic experiences that can cause this disorder. Additionally, PTSD also occurs in children and teens.

Post Induction Therapy

Post-Induction Therapy is a therapeutic modality developed by Pia Mellody in the 1970s. Specifically, Post-Induction Therapy treats the effects of childhood trauma and the resulting developmental immaturity and codependency. Therefore, Post-Induction Therapy can help adolescents heal the underlying trauma at the root of teen substance use disorders.

Phobias and Fears

Phobias and fears are relatively common disorders, and a comprehensive list of phobias would be quite extensive. According to the National Institute of Mental Health, more than 10 million American adults suffer from a phobia.

Person Centered Humanistic Therapy

Person-Centered Humanistic Therapy is a therapeutic modality developed in the 1940s by American psychologist Carl Rogers. Rogers based this modality on the concept of self-actualization—the idea that every person has the capacity and desire for personal growth and change. Thus, principles of Person-Centered Humanistic Therapy can be helpful in teen mental health treatment.

Parental Alienation

Parental alienation is caused by the psychological manipulation of an alienated child or teen into showing unwarranted fear, disrespect, or anger toward a parent or other family member. Usually associated with hostile custody cases, parental alienation is considered psychological abuse and inter-family violence, toward both the child and the rejected parent.

Panic Disorder

Panic disorder symptoms are quite common. Every year, close to six million Americans experience panic disorder. Panic attacks often begin in childhood or early adolescence, although panic disorder tends to set in during late adolescence or early adulthood. Girls are twice as likely as boys to suffer from panic disorder.

Panic Attack

A panic attack, also called a panic disorder, can either be triggered or can occur unexpectedly. Unexpected panic attacks can happen without warning and be quite overwhelming. Thus, teens with panic attack symptoms are often unaware of the causes.

OxyContin Abuse

OxyContin is an extended-release version of oxycodone, a narcotic painkiller. OxyContin is generally considered to be the prescription drug that kick-started the opioid epidemic in the United States. OxyContin abuse results in thousands of teen opioid overdoses.

Outpatient Treatment

Outpatient treatment offers clients the chance to practice relapse-prevention techniques in the real world during the treatment process. However, the lack of 24-hour professional care and monitoring means easier access to substances and thus a higher chance of relapse. Therefore, outpatient treatment is sometimes more effective as a follow-up to residential treatment.

Oppositional Defiant Disorder

Oppositional Defiant Disorder in a teen is different from the frustrated outbursts or moody behavior that many teens experience. This disorder occurs in about 15 percent of teenagers. Although it’s more common in families with a history of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), there is no proven cause of oppositional defiance disorder.

Opioid Abuse

Opioid abuse and opioid addiction have led to an opioid crisis in the United States. Every day, 90 Americans die from an opioid overdose. Therefore, protecting teens from opioid abuse has become a national priority.

Narcissistic Personality Disorder

Narcissistic personality disorder is believed to affect around 6 percent of people nationwide, but is more prevalent in younger people. Thus, a major National Institute of Health study found that 9.4 percent of Americans in their early twenties experienced episodes of narcissistic personality disorder.

Music Therapy

Music therapy with a trained music therapist is beneficial for teens. Many recent studies have shown the positive effect of music therapy on adolescents with substance abuse disorder and mental health issues. Music therapy studies conducted in hospitals in the late 20th century found that music as therapy has a positive effect on clinically relevant outcomes.

Multiple Personality Disorder

Multiple Personality Disorder is now referred to as Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID) in the American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual. The new terminology reflects research showing that those with DID do not actually have multiple personalities. Rather, they have two or more personality states with different ways of relating, perceiving, thinking, and remembering. Identity, memory, and consciousness are not integrated into a single multidimensional self.

Multidimensional Family Therapy

Multidimensional Family Therapy (MDFT) has been proven to address a range of teen problem behaviors, from mental health challenges to substance use disorders. Therefore, it is an example of an effective family therapy model. Moreover, the success of MDFT is proof that family counseling needs to be an integrative part of a teen’s path to recovery. In addition, MDFT offers an individualized treatment system, rather than a “one size fits all” approach.

Motivational Interviewing

Motivational Interviewing (MI) is a form of substance use disorder treatment defined in 1983 by American clinical psychologist William Miller. By delineating Motivational Interviewing techniques, Miller helped to change the way recovery professionals think about the nature of substance use disorders and their treatment. Specifically, the technique addresses how to effect lasting change in clients who have not improved with traditional treatment approaches.

Mood Disorder

Mood disorders are common in the teen years. Adolescence is a time of turbulence and strong emotions. These changes in mood might seem to appear overnight, and they might disappear just as quickly. Often, moodiness is a normal part of the teen years. However, if extreme mood changes persist and worsen, it’s possible that a teenager may be suffering from a mood disorder.

Minor Depression

Minor depression can impact adolescents. Being a teenager is hard. All teens experience sadness or feelings of low self-esteem at one time or another. But it’s very important that parents and other adults in a teen’s life make sure to observe what’s going on, and take action if they notice symptoms of minor depression. Furthermore, mild depression can escalate into major depression if left untreated.


Mindfulness meditation and mindfulness exercises are effective alternative forms of pain relief and stress relief. Therefore, doctors have developed therapeutic applications based on mindfulness to help people who are experiencing psychological challenges and physical pain.

Methamphetamine Abuse

Teen methamphetamine abuse can lead to addiction very quickly, because the drug alters the brain in ways that make quitting difficult. Recent statistics from the National Institute on Drug Abuse show that 1.2 percent of 12th graders have used the drug. However, that number increases as teens get older: 3.3 percent of adolescents aged 18 to 25 report having used methamphetamine.


Mentalization is a therapeutic approach that has been shown to help people suffering from borderline personality disorder (BPD). Furthermore, mentalization-based therapy (MBT) is also helpful in treating both teens and adults for post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, and eating disorders.

Melancholic Depression

Melancholic depression is a serious mental health problem that causes persistent feelings of sadness and loss of interest in activities and relationships. It affects how teenagers think, feel, and behave, and it can cause emotional, functional, and physical problems. Unlike atypical depression, melancholic depression is not improved by positive events in the person’s life.


Meditation is a powerful tool for enhancing teen mental health. In fact, a meditation study at Johns Hopkins University found that almost all types of meditation were as effective as pharmaceutical antidepressants for the symptoms of anxiety and depression. Measurements using magnetic resonance imaging (MRIs) show that meditation can alter neural activity in a positive way, promoting well-being and optimism.

Martial Arts

Martial arts group is beneficial for teen mental health. A martial arts group practices physical exercise systems that are associated with the combat arts of eastern Asia. However, the term “martial arts” originally referred to combat systems developed in Europe as early as the 1550s. The term “martial arts” is derived from Latin, meaning “the arts of Mars.” This is a direct reference to the Roman god of war. The typical martial arts group offered today is not about aggression or war. Given the spiritual and physical benefits of the martial arts group, participation is increasing worldwide.

Marijuana Abuse

Abuse of marijuana is at an all-time high among young people. According to the most recent Monitoring the Future Survey from the National Institute on Drug Abuse, 39 percent of college students use marijuana—the highest levels of use among college students in the past three decades. Furthermore, 36 percent of high school seniors use marijuana, similar to past years, and 6 percent report daily use.

Major Depression

Major depression is a severe depression that can incapacitate those who are suffering. People with major depression find it difficult or impossible to do normal daily activities, such as working, studying, sleeping, and eating. Furthermore, those who have had one episode of major depression are at high risk of having another.

Internet Addiction

Internet addiction is not yet officially recognized as a disorder in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV). However, cyber addiction statistics are staggering. Some studies report that more than 8 percent of the US population experiences Internet addiction. Other studies suggest that up to 38 percent of Americans are affected.

Intensive Outpatient Treatment

Intensive outpatient treatment, also referred to as an intensive outpatient program, is often abbreviated with the acronym IOP. Since the reference is unfamiliar, people exploring outpatient treatment tend to ask, “What is IOP?”

Huffing/Inhalant Abuse

Inhalant abuse, also known as huffing, is unusual in that it is most common among younger adolescents and tends to decline as teens age. This may be due to the fact that inhalants are typically legal household items that are easy to access. However, teen inhalant use has been declining among 8th-, 10th-, and 12th-graders since 2006, after a peak in the mid-1990s.


Horticulture as a therapeutic tool can be traced back to Dr. Benjamin Rush, recognized as the “father of American psychiatry.” Dr. Rush first documented the benefits of horticulture therapy on individuals with mental illness in the 18th century.

Holistic Treatment

Holistic treatment provides an alternative or complementary approach to Western healthcare. A National Institute of Health study showed that a third of Americans use some form of holistic treatment approach on a regular basis.

Heroin Abuse

Heroin abuse and heroin addiction are on the rise among Americans. The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration reports that heroin use in the United States has increased five-fold in the past decade, and dependence on the drug has more than tripled. Moreover, 80 percent of Americans who admit to heroin abuse or addiction started by misusing prescription opioids.

Generalized Anxiety Disorder

Teens with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) typically experience excessive worrying and low self-esteem. The most common teen anxiety disorder, GAD is very treatable. Onset can be as early as age 6, but symptoms usually appear around age 11.

Gender-Specific Treatment

Gender-specific treatment addresses the different experiences that men and women have with respect to gender and addiction. The National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Addiction has found that women who use marijuana, cocaine, or heroin move from initial use to dependence on these drugs more quickly than men. In teenagers, studies show less variation across gender lines, especially for younger teens. However, gender-specific treatment for substance abuse is beneficial for other reasons as well.

Gender Identity Disorder

Gender identity disorder (GID) is a term that is no longer used by mental health professionals. In 2012, this term was changed to “gender dysphoria” in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Replacing a term that included the word “disorder” was an important step toward removing stigma against transgender people based on false stereotypes about gender identity and expression. Feeling that your gender does not match your biology is not a mental illness, and most teens seeking gender reassignment surgery have healthy psychological functioning. However, teen gender dysphoria can cause extreme distress, which in turn may lead to anxiety, depression, eating disorders, substance abuse, negative body image, and an increased risk of suicide. This is due to external factors that transgender children and teens are subjected to, including bullying by peers, parental rejection, abuse, trauma, and harassment.

Gender Dysphoria

Gender dysphoria was previously referred to as “gender identity disorder.” In 2012, the term was changed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Replacing a term that included the word “disorder” was an important step toward removing stigma against transgender people based on false stereotypes about gender identity and expression. Feeling that your gender does not match your biology is not a mental illness, and most teens seeking gender reassignment surgery have healthy psychological functioning. However, teen gender dysphoria can cause extreme distress, which in turn may lead to anxiety, depression, eating disorders, substance abuse, body dysphoria (preoccupation with a perceived flaw in one’s appearance), and an increased risk of suicide. This is due to external factors that transgender children and teens are subjected to, including bullying by peers, parental rejection, abuse, trauma, and harassment.

Family Systems Approach

The family systems approach is a theory developed by psychiatrist Murray Bowen in the 1950s. Specifically, Dr. Bowen built family systems theory and its eight interlocking concepts on the core assumption that there is an emotional system governing human relationships in families. Thus, family systems theory uncovers the network of relationships that define a family.

Experiential Therapy

Experiential therapy was developed as a therapeutic approach in the 1970s. Based on the open-minded zeitgeist of that time, experiential therapy opened the door to a new approach based on experiential theory. This theory proposes that healing is best achieved through firsthand, body-based experiences.

Equine-Assisted Therapy

Equine-assisted therapy is particularly powerful for teens because it allows them to address emotions and issues through a direct experience of nonverbal communication. Since the 1990s, inpatient rehabs and mental health programs have instituted equine therapy programs as an active part of the therapeutic process.

Emotional Stress

Stress is a common emotional, psychological, and physical response. It can come with the ups and downs of life. Teenagers may feel stress due to the physical and emotional changes of growing up. There are different types of stress. In addition, some require professional treatment.

EMDR (Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing)

EMDR stands for Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing therapy. EMDR therapy was formulated in 1987. The originator and developer of EMDR, psychologist Francine Shapiro, realized that her eye movements seemed to reduce negative emotion associated with her past traumatic memories.

EFT (Emotional Freedom Technique)

EFT is the acronym for Emotional Freedom Technique. Introduced by Gary Craig in 1993 and developed through his EFT therapy handbook, EFT is an alternative form of counseling that draws on acupuncture, neuro-linguistic programming, energy medicine, and thought field therapy.

Ecstasy Abuse

Ecstasy is a popular drug with teenagers, typically used at dance clubs and in the underground party scene. Widely known as MDMA or molly, Ecstasy creates mind-altering effects that heighten perception and enhance mood.

Eating Disorders

Eating disorders are life-threatening illnesses, widely misunderstood in popular culture. The severe physical consequences of such a disorder can be overshadowed by the mistaken belief that an eating disorder is a phase or a lifestyle choice. Eating disorders afflict several million people at any given time, and typically arise during the teen years or in early adulthood. Influenced by peer pressure and media images, many teen girls and some teen boys become highly susceptible to eating disorders.

Eating Disordered Behavior

Eating disordered (ED) behavior, also known as disordered eating, has become increasingly more common in adolescents and teenagers. ED behaviors can occur in both males and females. Furthermore, such behaviors can lead to increased incidence of suicidal thoughts.


Dysthymia affects people of all ages, including children and teens. While occasional sadness or a sense of feeling down is normal for anyone every now and then, emotions of this nature that last more than a few days could be signs of dysthymia.

Dysfunctional Family

Dysfunctional family is a term used to refer to a wide range of family issues that create tension and stress. Often, the children or teenagers in a dysfunctional family are the ones who feel the repercussions most acutely. Because the brains and psyches of children and adolescents are still developing, family dysfunction can interrupt evolution of the self and lead to teen mental health disorders, such as depression, anxiety, and substance abuse. As adults, children of dysfunctional families may struggle with low self-esteem and find it difficult to trust others.

Dissociative Identity Disorder

Dissociative Identity Disorder was known as multiple personality disorder or split personality until 1994, when the name was officially changed in the American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual. The frequency of Dissociative Identity Disorder is about 1 to 3 percent of the general population, similar to the number of people with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. Women are more likely than men to be diagnosed with Dissociative Identity Disorder.

Depressant Abuse

Depressant abuse occurs among nearly 8 percent of 12th graders, with Xanax as the most popular depressant drug among teens. Regular use of depressants leads to tolerance, meaning the user must take more of the drug in order to feel the effects. This can lead to depressant addiction.

Delusional Disorder

Delusional disorders involve bizarre delusions, in which a person cannot distinguish between what is real and what is imagined. A person suffering from delusional disorder often fights for their right to believe the absurd, radically embracing their delusion.

DBT (Dialectical Behavioral Therapy)

DBT is the acronym for Dialectical Behavioral Therapy. Originally designed to treat chronically suicidal individuals diagnosed with borderline personality disorder (BPD), DBT skills are also used to optimize treatment modalities for other challenging conditions. For example, DBT therapy is often used to address teen eating disorders.

Day Schools

Day schools that are specifically designed as recovery high schools have been gaining in popularity as a continuing care resource since 1987. Specifically, recovery day schools are therapeutic high schools for teenagers in need of a sober environment.

Culinary Arts

Culinary Arts refer to a craft in the Western world developed during the Renaissance. Frenchman Jean Anthelme Brillat-Savarin led the study of culinary arts in Europe. He is known for the quote “Tell me what you eat, and I will tell you what you are.” Later, this saying was simplified into “You are what you eat.”


Crack cocaine use remains widespread. Data reported in the National Household Survey on Drug Abuse indicates that more than six million US teens and adults (ages 12 and older) have smoked crack cocaine at least once in their lifetime.


Codependency is a concept first developed in Alcoholics Anonymous (AA), to describe the way in which dysfunctional family relationships can negatively enable alcoholics. Therefore, AA and Al-Anon literature includes the earliest definitions of a codependent relationship.

Cocaine Abuse

The intense effects of cocaine as a powerful stimulant can have an overwhelming impact on a first-time user. Consequently, given the strength of the high, teen cocaine abuse can lead to long-term cocaine addiction.

Club Drugs

Club drugs are among the most common recreational drugs used among teens, along with alcohol and marijuana. This is because club drug use enhances and intensifies teenagers’ experience of social interaction. Since they can be taken in pill, powder, or liquid form, club drugs tend to be more acceptable for teens who have been educated about the dangers of injecting drugs, such as heroin. However, many teens are not aware of the hazards of club drugs.

Childhood Trauma

Childhood trauma can often be traced back to a parent-child relational problem. When teens have trauma as a part of their history, a stress-related disorder can appear. Indeed, the effects of childhood trauma generate a host of threats to a teen’s physical and mental health.

CBT (Cognitive Behavioral Therapy)

CBT is the acronym for Cognitive Behavioral Therapy. The term “cognitive” comes from the Latin “cognoscere,” meaning “to recognize.” CBT techniques and CBT worksheets can help people reveal and clarify thoughts, attitudes, and expectations.


Cannabidiol, known by the acronym CBD, is an alternative medical treatment used for a variety of conditions. Specifically, CBD has been used to address anxiety, depression, insomnia, joint pain, and multiple sclerosis, among other conditions. Dating back to the 19th century, CBD products have been widely employed as analgesics by Western medical practitioners.


Bullying can occur in many forms and situations. Types of bullying include physical bullying, verbal bullying, social bullying, psychological bullying, cyber bullying (via social media), and text bullying (via text messages). All types of bullying have a negative mental health impact on victims, witnesses, and perpetrators.

Bulimia Nervosa

Bulimia nervosa is an eating disorder that is difficult to diagnose without behavioral evidence. Although there are signs of bulimia, a person’s weight is not necessarily one of them. Thus, teens with bulimia may be thin, overweight, or have a normal weight.

Brown and Lewis Developmental Stages of Recovery

The Brown & Lewis Developmental Stages of Recovery is the work of Stephanie Brown, PhD, and Virginia Lewis, PhD, co-director of the Family Recovery Project. To outline the Brown & Lewis developmental stages of recovery, these two clinicians apply their knowledge and describe in detail how an alcoholic family member affects the family as a whole.

Brief Psychotic Disorder

Brief psychotic disorder, also known as brief reactive psychosis, is typically diagnosed in those in their late 20s or early 30s. Therefore, it is important to identify adolescents who may be at risk for developing teen psychosis symptoms.

Borderline Personality Disorder

Borderline personality disorder can dramatically impact the teen years. Teens with borderline personality disorder have a hard time connecting with others, and they can swing between emotional states very quickly. It’s very common for teens diagnosed with borderline personality disorder to also suffer from other mental health disorders. These might include anxiety, eating disorders, substance abuse, and/or attachment disorder.

Body Image Issues

Body image issues in teens tend to result from the toxic combination of a distorted self-image, a poor body image, and self-esteem issues. Body image issues can also be affected by negative projections from friends, family, and the popular culture. Although body image issues can affect any teenager, girls are more susceptible.

Body Dysmorphia

Body dysmorphia—having a distorted body image—is a common disorder on the obsessive-compulsive spectrum. It usually starts at a young age: Body dysmorphia can occur in adolescents and teenagers as young as 12 or 13. Beginning with self-esteem issues and poor body image, body dysmorphic disorder is a progressive condition that worsens over time.

Bipolar Disorder

Bipolar disorder can be hard to detect in adolescence, since teens go through emotional ups and downs. Experiencing highs and lows are a natural part of being a teen. Because the teenage brain is still developing, their impulses and emotions haven’t yet stabilized. But that is very different from experiencing the alternating episodes of extreme depressive and manic symptoms that characterize bipolar disorder. Bipolar disorder symptoms are much more severe and troubling than average teen moodiness.

Binge Eating Disorder

Although binge eating disorder (BED) is the most common of all the eating disorders in the United States, it remains widely misunderstood. Binge eating disorder does not merely mean occasional overeating. Teens diagnosed with binge eating disorder tend to engage in extreme binging at least once a week, for at least three months.

Benzodiazepine Abuse

Benzodiazepine abuse is the misuse and abuse of a class of drugs that are commonly prescribed to treat anxiety, insomnia, alcohol withdrawal, and other conditions. According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), close to 8 percent of 12th graders report teen benzodiazepine abuse.

Behavioral Disorders

Behavioral disorders refer to a group of disorders with symptoms that include various behavior problems. According to the National Institute of Mental Health, emotional and behavioral disorders affect around 13 percent of American children. However, children who are not treated may continue to suffer from behavioral disorders into adulthood. Consequently, their jobs and relationships may be affected.